|Antilock Braking System
|Prevents the wheels of a car locking up and skidding under heavy braking so control and steering is maintained
|Absorbs heat and blows refrigerated air into the cabin of the car, cooling it to below the ambient air temperature
|Active Cruise Control
|Using a front-mounted RADAR, ACC detects slower vehicles ahead and will maintain a relative driving speed to ensure a safe following distance.
|Active Fuel Management
|Also known as MDS (Multi Displacement System) or VCM (Variable Cylinder Management). During light operation the car’s engine can shut off cylinders so less fuel is used.
|Active Traction Control
|Used primarily in off road 4×4 applications ATC (also often referred as A-Trac) brakes spinning wheels and diverts torque to other wheels to gain traction in slippery surfaces.
|All Wheel Drive
|Popular terminology for permanent four-wheel drive systems. Vehicle can distribute power to all four wheels rather than just to the front or rear vehicle wheels only.
|Brake Horse Power
|The measure of a car engine’s horsepower before the rest of the vehicle’s drive train. The metric equivalent is Kilowatts (kW). 1 BHP = 0.745kW.
|Common Rail Diesel
|A single, highly pressurized fuel line supplies diesel to all cylinders allowing for finer control over fuel use. Vastly reduces diesel engine’s noise and improves fuel economy.
|Constant Velocity Transmission
|A continuously variable transmission is an automatic transmission that can vary drive ratios seamlessly using an internal belt and cone arrangement.
|Downhill Assist Control
|A safety feature intended for off-road use. The vehicle’s ABS and throttle control systems to maintain a gradual, more controlled decent on steep or slippery off-road surfaces.
|Double Overhead Camshaft
|A now very common vehicle engine design that places two camshafts (one to operate inlet valves, one to operate exhaust valves) mounted above the cylinder head.
|Direct Shift Gearbox
|A computer controlled manual gearbox that pre selects additional gears to the current driven gear. No clutch pedal is required and the next gear can be engaged very rapidly.
|Electronic Brake Distribution
|Electronically controls and distributes appropriate brake pressure to all brakes dependant on load and braking force. Replaces traditional mechanical brake proportioning valve.
|Electronic Control Unit
|An ECU is an electronic “brain” which controls a system in a car, such as the engine management system, transmission or body electrics.
|Electronic Damper Control
|An ECU-controlled wheel suspension system that adjusts the shock absorbers and regulates damper forces electronically adapting to changing road, load or driving conditions.
|Electronic Fuel Injection
|EFI systems replace carburetors as fitted to older vehicles. The electronically controlled fuel injectors deliver fuel more efficiently, improving economy, emissions and drivability.
|Exhaust Gas Recirculation
|A proportion of car exhaust gasses are redirected back into the car’s engine to help burn fuel more efficiently and significantly reduce harmful emissions.
|Emergency Locking Retractor
|Seatbelts which are always unlocked except in emergency situations such as rapid deceleration, rapid acceleration or hard cornering vehicle manoeuvres.
|Electronic Stability Program
|Dramatically helps in correcting vehicle instability during uncontrollable under or over steer situations by measuring lateral acceleration at the car’s centre of gravity. Also Known as VSA, DSC, ESC
|Fuel Straified Injection
|Also known as DI (Direct Injection) or GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection). Petrol is injected at high pressure directly into the car’s combustion chamber; the air fuel mixture can run far leaner than conventional EFI systems so is more efficient.
|Front Wheel Drive
|A car’s engine power is delivered through the front wheels. Is more common today than Rear Wheel Drive.
|Gross Vehicle Weight
|The maximum recommended weight for a vehicle, including: the weight of the vehicle itself, fuel and other fluids, passengers, and all cargo.
|Hill Assist Control
|A safety feature intended for off-road use. Helps prevent the vehicle from rolling backward or slipping sideways when performing hill start on steep or slippery gradients.
|High Intensity Discharge
|High Intensity Discharge lighting technology uses electric inducers to provide an arc inside a gas-filled bulb, enhancing night driving. Only trained technicians should maintain the system.
|The metric equivalent of Brake Horsepower. Used to measure the energy output of a vehicle’s engine.
|Light Emitting Diode
|LED’s are semiconductors that emit light when an electric current is applied. Increasingly popular in vehicle lighting as they have a much quicker response time and last longer.
|Left Hand Drive
|The steering wheel and controls on the left hand side of cars driven on the right hand side of the road in countries such as the USA.
|Liquid Petroleum Gas
|LPG is a popular alternative fuel to petrol or diesel. The cost per liter is less than petrol but it is less fuel efficient.
|Limited Slip Differential
|A limited Slip Differential allows two driving wheels to operate in unison when one breaks traction. It provides improved control and traction in slippery conditions.
|Long Wheel Base
|Front and rear axles are further apart therefore the body or cargo deck of a commercial vehicle will be longer than other model variations.
|Measurement of a vehicle’s engine torque. Torque is the turning force of the car’s engine.
|Original Equipment Manufacturer
|Manufacturer/supplier of components fitted to a new car at the time of manufacture.
|Power Assisted Steering
|A system designed to reduce the effort required to steer the vehicle, particularly at low parking speeds. Can be Hydraulic, Electric or a combination of both.
|Park Distance Control
|An audible warning device that alerts the driver when their car is getting close to other cars or objects when parking
|Right Hand Drive
|The steering wheel and controls on the right hand side of cars driven on the left hand side of the road in countries such as New Zealand.
|Revolutions Per Minute
|How fast the car’s engine is turning i.e. how many times the crankshaft rotates in one minute
|Rear Wheel Drive
|A car’s engine power is delivered through the rear wheels. Less common today than FWD.
|Satellite Navigation System
|Also known as GPS (Global Positioning System). GPS technology interfaces with mapping software either built to provide spoken, turn by turn instructions to drivers.
|Short Wheel Base
|Front and rear axles are closer together therefore the body or cargo deck of a commercial vehicle will be shorter
|Supplementary Restraint System
|Designed to be used in conjunction with seatbelts, SRS refers to a vehicle’s airbag system. A car’s airbags are designed to reduce occupant injury in the event of a car crash and are deployed when the SRS sensors detect a predetermined level of impact force.
|Turbo Diesel Injection
|Most modern diesel engines are now fitted with turbochargers to maximize performance.
|Variable Geometry Turbo
|This system varies airflow angle across a car engine’s turbo blades providing optimum power delivery across a broader rev range. Now commonplace in modern diesel vehicle engines.
|Vehicle Identification Number
|A Unique 17 digit number, for each individual car, that can indentify date of manufacture, manufacturing plant and standards etc.
|Variable Valve Timing
|VVT systems advance or retard camshaft timing to optimizing vehicle engine efficiency, performance and exhaust emissions.