||Antilock Braking System
||Prevents the wheels of a car locking up and skidding under heavy braking so control and steering is maintained
||Absorbs heat and blows refrigerated air into the cabin of the car, cooling it to below the ambient air temperature
||Active Cruise Control
||Using a front-mounted RADAR, ACC detects slower vehicles ahead and will maintain a relative driving speed to ensure a safe following distance.
||Active Fuel Management
||Also known as MDS (Multi Displacement System) or VCM (Variable Cylinder Management). During light operation the car’s engine can shut off cylinders so less fuel is used.
||Active Traction Control
||Used primarily in off road 4×4 applications ATC (also often referred as A-Trac) brakes spinning wheels and diverts torque to other wheels to gain traction in slippery surfaces.
||All Wheel Drive
||Popular terminology for permanent four-wheel drive systems. Vehicle can distribute power to all four wheels rather than just to the front or rear vehicle wheels only.
||Brake Horse Power
||The measure of a car engine’s horsepower before the rest of the vehicle’s drive train. The metric equivalent is Kilowatts (kW). 1 BHP = 0.745kW.
||Common Rail Diesel
||A single, highly pressurized fuel line supplies diesel to all cylinders allowing for finer control over fuel use. Vastly reduces diesel engine’s noise and improves fuel economy.
||Constant Velocity Transmission
||A continuously variable transmission is an automatic transmission that can vary drive ratios seamlessly using an internal belt and cone arrangement.
||Downhill Assist Control
||A safety feature intended for off-road use. The vehicle’s ABS and throttle control systems to maintain a gradual, more controlled decent on steep or slippery off-road surfaces.
||Double Overhead Camshaft
||A now very common vehicle engine design that places two camshafts (one to operate inlet valves, one to operate exhaust valves) mounted above the cylinder head.
||Direct Shift Gearbox
||A computer controlled manual gearbox that pre selects additional gears to the current driven gear. No clutch pedal is required and the next gear can be engaged very rapidly.
||Electronic Brake Distribution
||Electronically controls and distributes appropriate brake pressure to all brakes dependant on load and braking force. Replaces traditional mechanical brake proportioning valve.
||Electronic Control Unit
||An ECU is an electronic “brain” which controls a system in a car, such as the engine management system, transmission or body electrics.
||Electronic Damper Control
||An ECU-controlled wheel suspension system that adjusts the shock absorbers and regulates damper forces electronically adapting to changing road, load or driving conditions.
||Electronic Fuel Injection
||EFI systems replace carburetors as fitted to older vehicles. The electronically controlled fuel injectors deliver fuel more efficiently, improving economy, emissions and drivability.
||Exhaust Gas Recirculation
||A proportion of car exhaust gasses are redirected back into the car’s engine to help burn fuel more efficiently and significantly reduce harmful emissions.
||Emergency Locking Retractor
||Seatbelts which are always unlocked except in emergency situations such as rapid deceleration, rapid acceleration or hard cornering vehicle manoeuvres.
||Electronic Stability Program
||Dramatically helps in correcting vehicle instability during uncontrollable under or over steer situations by measuring lateral acceleration at the car’s centre of gravity. Also Known as VSA, DSC, ESC
||Fuel Straified Injection
||Also known as DI (Direct Injection) or GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection). Petrol is injected at high pressure directly into the car’s combustion chamber; the air fuel mixture can run far leaner than conventional EFI systems so is more efficient.
||Front Wheel Drive
||A car’s engine power is delivered through the front wheels. Is more common today than Rear Wheel Drive.
||Gross Vehicle Weight
||The maximum recommended weight for a vehicle, including: the weight of the vehicle itself, fuel and other fluids, passengers, and all cargo.
||Hill Assist Control
||A safety feature intended for off-road use. Helps prevent the vehicle from rolling backward or slipping sideways when performing hill start on steep or slippery gradients.
||High Intensity Discharge
||High Intensity Discharge lighting technology uses electric inducers to provide an arc inside a gas-filled bulb, enhancing night driving. Only trained technicians should maintain the system.
||The metric equivalent of Brake Horsepower. Used to measure the energy output of a vehicle’s engine.
||Light Emitting Diode
||LED’s are semiconductors that emit light when an electric current is applied. Increasingly popular in vehicle lighting as they have a much quicker response time and last longer.
||Left Hand Drive
||The steering wheel and controls on the left hand side of cars driven on the right hand side of the road in countries such as the USA.
||Liquid Petroleum Gas
||LPG is a popular alternative fuel to petrol or diesel. The cost per liter is less than petrol but it is less fuel efficient.
||Limited Slip Differential
||A limited Slip Differential allows two driving wheels to operate in unison when one breaks traction. It provides improved control and traction in slippery conditions.
||Long Wheel Base
||Front and rear axles are further apart therefore the body or cargo deck of a commercial vehicle will be longer than other model variations.
||Measurement of a vehicle’s engine torque. Torque is the turning force of the car’s engine.
||Original Equipment Manufacturer
||Manufacturer/supplier of components fitted to a new car at the time of manufacture.
||Power Assisted Steering
||A system designed to reduce the effort required to steer the vehicle, particularly at low parking speeds. Can be Hydraulic, Electric or a combination of both.
||Park Distance Control
||An audible warning device that alerts the driver when their car is getting close to other cars or objects when parking
||Right Hand Drive
||The steering wheel and controls on the right hand side of cars driven on the left hand side of the road in countries such as New Zealand.
||Revolutions Per Minute
||How fast the car’s engine is turning i.e. how many times the crankshaft rotates in one minute
||Rear Wheel Drive
||A car’s engine power is delivered through the rear wheels. Less common today than FWD.
||Satellite Navigation System
||Also known as GPS (Global Positioning System). GPS technology interfaces with mapping software either built to provide spoken, turn by turn instructions to drivers.
||Short Wheel Base
||Front and rear axles are closer together therefore the body or cargo deck of a commercial vehicle will be shorter
||Supplementary Restraint System
||Designed to be used in conjunction with seatbelts, SRS refers to a vehicle’s airbag system. A car’s airbags are designed to reduce occupant injury in the event of a car crash and are deployed when the SRS sensors detect a predetermined level of impact force.
||Turbo Diesel Injection
||Most modern diesel engines are now fitted with turbochargers to maximize performance.
||Variable Geometry Turbo
||This system varies airflow angle across a car engine’s turbo blades providing optimum power delivery across a broader rev range. Now commonplace in modern diesel vehicle engines.
||Vehicle Identification Number
||A Unique 17 digit number, for each individual car, that can indentify date of manufacture, manufacturing plant and standards etc.
||Variable Valve Timing
||VVT systems advance or retard camshaft timing to optimizing vehicle engine efficiency, performance and exhaust emissions.